Considering how Japanese Buddhism eventually abandoned the Vinaya Discipline as a formal requirement for monastic training – I was pleasantly surprised to read Master Dogen’s view on this matter as contained in his extraordinary Shobogenzo (正法眼蔵 - Zheng Fa Yan Zang) text - literally ‘Correct Dharma-Eye Storehouse’. As Dogen expresses more than one dimension of reality at the same time – it is prudent not to jump to conclusions. For instance, he states that the status of monastic ordination is far-superior to that of lay-existence on the grounds that all impurity has been abandoned through the ordination process. Dogen further criticises as ‘wrong’ all those Ch’an Masters he met in China who said that there is no difference between a Buddhist monastic and a lay-person – but is Dogen correct? He certainly makes a very powerful argument that is difficult to uproot rhetorically.
Obviously, a Buddhist monastic who commits themselves to the over-two hundred Vinaya Discipline Rules is most certainly worthy of respect – particularly as they also commit themselves to follow the numerous (similar) Bodhisattva Vows! Theravada and Mahayana monastics give-up all direct connection with the household and the worlds of politics and work. For Vajrayana monastics, however, the situation is slightly different as the Tantri School begins and ends from the position of complete enlightenment, and work from the premise that the empty mind ground (Buddha-Nature) underlies all phenomena evenly – including the monastic and lay worlds of existence. Although many Tantrikas can spend decades in isolation practicing their ‘methods’ of self-purification – it is also true that some monks and nuns of this tradition marry one another sand use the machinations of married-life as yet another type of ‘yogic practice’ seeking unity in the one and oneness in the unity.
Dogen states that not one single lay-person ever realised enlightenment during the Buddha's lifetime – but this is a mistaken notion as there are at least twenty-one examples spread throughout the Pali Buddhist Suttas recording the attainment of full enlightenment by both male and female ‘lay’ followers of the Buddha! Some were enlightened by being in the presence of the Buddha, some were enlightened when he looked directly at them, whilst others were enlightened when they heard the Buddha’s voice (and/or put his teachings into practice)! The Buddha explained this by saying that these lay-people had built extraordinarily positive karma in their previous existences which meant that their lifestyle in this existence merely needed a slight nudge for the ridge-pole of ignorance to be thoroughly smashed! Of course, this is not the typical situation for humanity as many ordain and find the life very difficult due to the very heavy and negative karma they have to carry and attempt to uproot through Buddhist practice.
Dogen does not seem to be that impressed with the example of the enlightened lay-man – Vimalakirti – despite the Buddha explaining that Vimalakirti was a thoroughly enlightened Bodhisattva who took various forms merely to ‘liberate’ those he was destined to encounter during each lifetime. Furthermore, Hiu Neng was a layman when he inherited the Ch’an Dharma and became the Sixth Patriarch (although he was ordained many years later). Within the Ch’an Records in China it is stated that men, women, children, animals and even trees and inanimate objects have experienced enlightenment! As the empty mind ground (Buddha-Nature) underlies all phenomena, and given that the enlightened mind is expansive and all-embracing, there is no situation, person, living-being or object that exists outside of it. As this is the case, how can a monastic be ‘superior’ to a lay-person'?
Although I follow the Vinaya Discipline and the Bodhisattva Vows as a married layman – when I was a cloistered Ch’an monk I was continuously reminded of the need to practice ‘humility’. A Buddhist monastic is nothing but a ‘beggar’ - albeit a beggar who has direct access to the sublime teachings of the Dharma! A beggar owns nothing, controls nothing and drifts from place to place when not anchored by a regular monastic routine. He or she has no worries because the world of worries has been thoroughly renounced. There is nothing ‘superior’ about being socially useless. Furthermore, the hexagrams of the ‘Yijing’ (Classic of Change) are built line by line from the base upwards. Whether or not the hexagram is ‘strong’ or ‘weak’ depends on the first two lines! It is these two foundational lines that hold and secure the other four lines in place and give the entire hexagram meaning. As the Buddhist monastic is the foundational support for Chinese society, he or she must comprise the lowest two lines of the six-lined structure. This is how the four higher lines that constitute Chinese culture are supported and ‘lifted-up’ by the bottom two lines which gain their broad and universal power through a complete and humble attitude with no wants or fears. Within the Yijing – lines always move upwards from the base so if a Buddhist monastic comprised the upper two-lines there is no ‘supporting’ action for the underlying four lines - as these two lines above are moving forever upward on their own and will soon be out of the picture!
Buddhist monastics are empowered because they are ‘humble’ and voluntarily take the weight of society upon their shoulders! However, this should not fall into an ‘elitist’ position that nullifies the very purpose of ‘humility’! Given the correct conditions, a good teacher and an effective method – anyone can realise complete and total enlightenment. Even today in China, Ch’an monastics are always humble and unassuming. They always possess the attitude that they are ‘nothing’ and that they exist to support and serve society. As there is no ego involved, none of this has anything to do with money or status. It is just the next thing to do. Having said all this, I believe Dogen may be protesting about the ‘dishonest’ mind often found within lay-society which pretends it is enlightened and contrives to exploit others and make profit out of seeming to help! These people are making hellish karma for themselves and are their own worst enemy.
Richard Hunn (1949-2006) was an expert in the history, philosophy and cultural interpretation of the Yijing (易經) or ‘Change Classic’. This is this the common name for the far earlier ‘Zhouyi’ (周易) ‘Zhou Change’ - as the hexagrams (and probably the trigrams) were laid-down during early part of the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China (1134-256 BCE) - with Confucius (and others later adding explanatory texts affixed to divination judgements. The (broken and straight) lined-structures themselves, arose from the practice of a hot-poker touching the flat (underpart) of a turtle shell (plastron) - or an 'ox scapula' (or shoulder-bone), with cracks forming on the shell from the transferred heat. A question was asked (usually by the King) with a royal minister writing the question on the shell (thus forming legal a record of the consultation). The hot-poker would touch the shell with the resulting ‘steam’ interpreted as the question being transported up into the divine sky as the steam ‘rose’ upwards. The ancient ancestral spirit dwelling in the sky would answer the question by way of sending deliberate ‘cracks’ downwards into the shell – with the diviner interpreting these ‘received’ cracks according to the question asked in relation to the over-all situation being investigated by the King. This divining ‘judgement’ (and other observations) would be etched onto the turtle shell alongside the question and stored away in a special depository of used turtle-shell divinations. Through this process, vast libraries of ‘royal’ divination prognoses were developed, and it is from this array of data that the original ‘Yijing’ was eventually formed into book. As the average number of cracks appeared to be ‘six’ - a ‘hexagram’ was chosen to represent this system of continuous change, together with the resultant judgements, situations and line commentaries, etc. There is a debate as to whether the ‘hexagram’ or ‘pentagram’ (five lined structure) was the original structure due to the complete nature of certain five-lined commentaries (as if the sixth-line is superfluous and added later), just as there is a debate about whether the eight trigrams were in the original Yijing or added during the rise of the Yin-Yang School (C. 300 BCE) with their content projected backwards. Trigrams are not specifically mentioned in the sixty-four chapters of the Yijing, and neither is the ideal of yin and yang (Hexagram 61 mentions ‘yin’ as a ‘shadow’ only). The eight trigrams and the Yin-Yang ideal is contained in the ‘Great Treatise’ (大傳 - Da Zhuan) - which was compiled from a number of disparate texts from around 500 BCE onwards (a process continuing perhaps into the Latter Han Dynasty). This information is either ‘new’ and was cleverly integrated into the Yijing – or it was a clarification of what had already come before. No one knows for sure. Besides all this interesting study, it is said that the sixty-four hexagrams of the Yijing prepare the enlightened Ch’an practitioner to ‘integrated’ the void aspect of the mind into the ‘material’ (form) aspect of the physical world, and exhibit behaviour that is never out of step with the Dao (道).
Note: It is recorded in Chinese language sources that different (but similar) divination manuals existed during the Xia Dynasty (2205 -1766 BCE) and the Shang Dynasty (1783 - 1122 BCE) - and that these evoled into the 'Zhouyi' - but no evidence of these texts has yet been uncovered.
Adrian Chan-Wyles (釋大道 - Shi Da Dao) is permitted to retain his Buddhist Monastic Dharma-Name within Lay-society by decree of the Government of the People’s Republic of China, and the Chinese Buddhist Association (1992). A Buddhist monastic (and devout lay-practitioner) upholds the highest levels of Vinaya Discipline and Bodhisattva Vows. A Genuine Buddhist ‘Venerates’ the ‘Dao’ (道) as he or she penetrates the ‘Empty Mind-Ground' through meditative insight. A genuine Buddhist is humble, wise and peace-loving – and he or she selflessly serves all in existence in the past, present and the future, and residing within the Ten Directions – whilst retaining a vegetarian- vegan diet. Please be kind to animals!
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